Volodymyr Biletskyi, PhD, DSc, ProfTit
National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine)
Hennadii Haiko, PhD, DSc, ProfTit
National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine)
Publication type: research article
Publication language: Ukrainian
The question of the Donets Basin industrial development, including the formation and development of the coal and steel industry, which in the second half of the nineteenth century – the beginning of the twentieth century. Briefly describe the most important events and contributions of Ukrainian and foreign researchers and entrepreneurs in the industrial transformation in eastern Ukraine. It is shown that the rapid development of mining and metallurgical industry and transport Donets Basin in the last third of the nineteenth century. inextricably linked with the mastery of iron ore in Kryvyi Rih, ie the systematic development of heavy industry Left-Bank and Right-Bank Ukraine. Formation as an industrial center of Donbass Ukraine should be seen as an important part of the global process of world industrial transformation ( “Industrial Revolution”), as evidenced by a number of factors: the attraction expeditions top scientists from the Russian Empire, France and the United Kingdom, Germany; powerful foreign investments in the industry (including Belgian, French, English), attracting foreign experts, organizers metallurgical industry (John Hughes et al.); importation through the Azov and Black Sea ports overseas metallurgical equipment, exports of metal ores and coal; breaking the basic elements of the feudal system (abolition of serfdom, free labor recruitment, banks, promotional companies, investment protection, etc.). This can clearly be seen in the dominant contribution to Ukrainian industrial development of the region, not only at the level of working enterprises (former farmers, local population), but also at the level of Ukrainian elites – leaders and initiators of industrial processes and social change (E. Kovalevskyy, O. Alchevskyy, O. Paul et al.).
Key words: Donetsk basin, coal industry, steel industry, the nineteenth century – beginning of the twentieth century, the Industrial Revolution, History of Mining